Assignment 4

During this module of the Provincial Instructors Diploma Program (PIDP) the focus was curriculum development. I have focused on developing a Professional Practice course in semester two of the Practical Nursing Program. The content of this course is
based on professional issues in relation to the Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN) practice. Some of the content is this course will construct upon previous knowledge and skills acquired in Professional Practice 1 in semester one of the program. It will also include integration of new content and skills.

In this paper, I will supply rationales for the purpose of the course, why I chose to use performance objectives, a course syllabus, and the chosen learning activities for this course. And explain why curriculum integration and alignment is important in curriculum development.

Assignment #1.1
1. Describe the purposes/need that your course addresses: Why is this course needed? What is needed in the course in terms of content and/or delivery?

This course, Professional Practice 2 will be in semester two of the Practical Nursing Program. As with all courses in the Practical Nursing Program, this course is compulsory. The pre-requisite for Professional Practice 2 is successful completion of Professional Practice 1 with a minimum grade of sixty-five percent. Within this course it is essential to introduce new content as well as continue to build upon the prior knowledge and experience developed in semester one and clinical practicum experience.

Nurses have a mandate from their licensing body to provide safe competent care to the public that they serve. This course will enhance the learner’s knowledge and skills on previous learned components on the nursing process, critical thinking, and professional practice from semester one. The learner will learn new theory regarding regulatory bodies, self-regulation, legal and ethical implications on LPN practice, identify guidelines and legislation that influence LPN practice, the LPN leadership role, leadership styles, collaborative practice, and the role and mandate of a union. These are all vital
components of nursing practice.

This course requires the learner to have the following resources. Textbooks, IPAD, internet, assess to the College of Licensed Practical Nurses of British Columbia website. The learner will need to be given the course outline and schedule on the first day of class. This will ensure that the learner has a clear understanding of the course objectives, evaluation methods, dates of evaluations, grading criteria, and how to contact the Instructor. The Instructor will need to review the curriculum, obtain copies of the course outline and schedule prior to the start of the course. It is the Instructor’s
responsibility to develop lesson plans that align with the curriculum and course outline to ensure that the learning objectives are being taught. This will assist the instructor to effectively facilitate the learner’s learning. Each class the Instructor will require a power point projector, whiteboard, markers, eraser, flipcharts and tape.

2. Why have you chosen either the CBE approach or the OBE approach?

I have chosen the competency based education (CBE) approach, as this approach ensures that the graduate has the basic competencies (knowledge, judgment, skills and attitude) to serve a specific profession. This type of education ensures that the learner
has achieved a minimal level of competence in a specific job category. It includes “fives levels of competencies; novice, advanced beginner, competence, proficiency, and expertise“(PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development). The learner begins with mastering basic competencies and as they advance through the program they will achieve a higher knowledge and application of these competencies.

With the CBE approach the learner is required to be self directed in their learning, build upon their prior knowledge and experiences, utilize critical thinking skills, and engage in transformational learning, and accept responsibility for their learning. These are all essential components of nursing practice. This form of education includes both objectives and performance based measurements aligned to desired outcomes (Competency-Based Nursing Education) and contains practical components (PDIP 3210 Curriculum Development). Competency based education ensures employers that the graduate has meet the required minimum competencies to work at an entry level position in a specific job classification. And aligns the course content to meet the licensure requirements the specific profession.

The Practical Nursing Curriculum in British Columbia is based on Jean Watson’s theory of humanist and caring model. The curriculum is formatted in a spiral model. With each semester the learner is required to construct upon prior knowledge and
experience while learning new content and skills.

Assignment #1.2
3. Why did you choose Performance Objective, Confluent Objective or Expressive Objectives? How do these objectives reflect the level of learning expected of the students? How are these ten related to each other?

I chose to use performance objectives in this course as “performance objectives are a detailed description of the criteria that the students must be able to do when they conclude a unit of instruction” (Writing Objectives, ITMA). Each performance objective includes a behavior that the learner must achieve as outlined in the curriculum
and course syllabus. By using performance objectives the learner has a clear understanding of the requirement that must be achieved in order to be successful in the course. “Performance objectives are measurable and observable” (Writing Objectives, ITMA).

The performance objectives used in my course development are crucial outcomes for the student to master to ensure safe and competent nursing care during clinical practicum experience and as a graduate nurse. And will ensure that the graduate has the employability skills to enter the profession of nursing.

These ten performance objective are not related by subject. Together they produce basic competencies for the beginning practitioner. These performance objectives ensure the licensing body (CLPNBC) that the learner has the knowledge, skills, judgment and attitude to provide safe competent care to the public.

Assignment # 2
4. Describe reasons for your choice of Course Outline format. (Booklet, brochure, other)

I opted to use a course syllabus for this course as it allows for organization of all related information in a one document. This includes Instructor contact information, instructor work hours, purpose of the course, course objectives, compulsory prerequisites, supplies and texts required for the course. As well as the evaluation methods and dates,
grading criteria, course policies and any other relevant data.

A course syllabus provides potential students, registered students, Instructors and stakeholders with a clear understanding of the course requirements and content that will be covered during the course. Students registered in this course will utilize this document as a reference throughout the course. “A course syllabus clearly sets out course requirements and policies regarding grading, academic integrity, student conduct, late work and other issues. Students are responsible for reading and understanding the syllabus, the terms of which thy implicitly agree to abide by when they take the course”
(Preparing a Syllabus). This will prevent any discrepancy between the learner and the Instructor. An example of a stakeholder who may review the course syllabus is an employer looking at the outcomes of the course to ensure the graduate will have the minimum competencies in a specific job classification. It aides the Instructor in organization and planning of the course. Examples of how a course syllabus will aide the Instructors are; course structure, assignments, exams, learning methods and review sessions.

5. Provide reasons for your choices related to Course Formats, Activities, Schedule, and Assessment/Evaluation activities.

I have chosen to schedule this course to be delivered over ten weeks for three hours a week. The rationale for this decision is that the learner will be more focused over a three hour period than a five hour period. As adult learners have other life commitments that make attending a course for a lengthy time difficult.

I have utilized a variety of learning methods to benefit the characteristics of adult learners and promote a positive learning environment. These include activities to keep the learner engaged, motivated, work collaboratively, allowing for autonomy and self-reflection.

This course incorporates two assignments into this course they “supplements and complement formal evaluations of learning” (Classroom Assessment Techniques, page 26). These assignments will allow the learner the opportunity to research the topic and “provides students with the practice that allows them to learn and apply the material presented in class” (Classroom Assessment Techniques, page 356). This will allow me to provide positive feedback to the learners in a timely manner. At this stage I may set-up tutorials if required.

The rationale for incorporating evaluations every three weeks is to allow me to assess if the learner’s comprehension of the material delivered to date. It gives the learner the opportunity to reflect on their strengths and deficits, and the ability to make any necessary changes during the course. Provides the “Instructor to reflect on the effectiveness of my teaching methods” (Incorporating Dynamic Assessments in Evaluation of Adult Learner).

Using assignments and evaluations in this module prevents having a heavily weighted midterm and final evaluation by distributing the marks more equally throughout the course. This has many advantages to the learner. It will aid in stress reduction while increasing their concentration. This technique allows for self-reflection on their learning
and their study habits throughout the course.

6. Why is curriculum integration and alignment important? How would you illustrate this for your curriculum; e.g. include your responses to p. 164 or p.166.

Curriculum integration and alignment “address both academic and industry skill standards and connect academic content with the real world through interesting, practical applications” (Integrating Curriculum: Lessons for Adult Education from Career and Technical Education). It is important to connect the academic content to preparing the learner for employment (Integrating Curriculum: Lessons for Adult Education from Career and Technical Education). This is accomplished by integrating employability skills into the curriculum. This prepares the student to transition from student to worker in specific job classification. And ensures the employer that the applicant has the minimum requirements for the specific job.

It is imperative to have integration between curriculum documents to ensure that the goals and objectives of the course are being met and no gaps occur. What is outlined in the curriculum must be written into the lesson plan which are aligned with the learning goals. Educators must carefully align assessments and evaluations to the outcomes of the course.

When developing curriculum it is essential to “use multiple instructional approaches, as is common in curriculum integration, also enable students to master more challenging concepts and skills” (Integrating Curriculum: Lessons for Adult Education from Career and Technical Education). This will assist the learner with securing a job, future education, or advancement in their role or career (Integrating Curriculum: Lessons for Adult Education from Career and Technical Education).

I will provide an example of how I have illustrated curriculum alignment with the materials that I developed in this module of the PIDP. The objective on my lesson plan is, by the end of this lesson, each student will be able to identify the characteristics and competencies of a critical thinker and apply critical thinking skill to their practice. On course schedule week five the content is related to performance objective E.1 to E.5.On the course DACUM chart, goal E is to analyze critical thinking skills. Performance objective E.1 is to describe critical thinking; E.3 is to define critical thinking competencies, and E.5 is to apply critical thinking to practice. This lesson plan is alignedwith the course outline and the DACUM chart.

It is essential for all nurses to develop and utilize critical thinking skills in nursing practice. Critical thinking in nursing is a “systematic approach to problem solving, out-come directed thinking, based on principles of the nursing process, and re-evaluating” (Critical Thinking in Practical/Vocational Nursing) to ensure the best outcomes for patients.

Assignment # 3
7. Provide reasons for your choices related to the Instructor and Learner Activities, Timing, Resources, and other key elements of your lesson.

By displaying the quotation on the screen, I will acquire the learner’s attention. This will focus the learner’s attention to the expectations for the lesson. By clearly identifying the objectives of the lesson will assist the learner in preparing for an evaluation on the subject matter by knowing what they are expected to learn from this lesson.

Posing the two questions for a pre-assessment will engage the participates in a discussion regarding the content of today’s lesson. It will allow me to determine the previous experience and knowledge of the learners in the room concerning the subject matter. This will give me the opportunity to identify if the learner’s have prepared for the lecture by completing the required pre-readings. And readjust my lesson if necessary, based on the level of prior knowledge in the class.

Throughout the lesson the learners will engage in active learning. I will link clinical practice examples to the content being delivered. This will reinforce to the learners that the material is relevant to nursing practice.

This lesson plan includes all the domains of learning, affective, cognitive, and psychomotor. While addressing the characteristics of the adult learner by building on their prior knowledge and life experiences. It takes into consideration different learning styles by utilizing a variety of instructional techniques while keeping the learner challenged, motivated, and engaged.

As a facilitator I will provide practice examples, provide positive feedback, and encourage participants to actively participate by asking question or offering information. I will respond to all questions promptly with clarity. I have included a break approximately half way through the lecture. This will allow the learners to tend to their nutritional needs, stretch, and network with other learners.

Adult learners are usually self-directed; accept responsibility for their own learning, have varied learning styles, and different knowledge levels regarding the content to be learned. Therefore I chose to utilize a variety of learning methods. I have included a power point lecture, discussions, activities, case scenario, and graphics.

I have chosen to use various forms of media for this lesson. By using more than one form of media keeps the learners stimulated and engaged throughout the lesson. By using a power point presentation during the lecture part of the lesson, the learner will visualize the key points of the lecture. The handouts will provide an area to take notes; act as a reference at a later date, and aid in preparing for an evaluation. The use of flip charts will facilitate the learners to record their group’s ideas, comments or thoughts, and assist the group with reporting back to the class. It will also assist other learners by having the ability to visualize the group’s work during the reporting back, these charts will be posted throughout the room for referencing for the remainder of the lesson. As an Educator I must be cognizant some students may be visual learners. The video adds a visual graphic component to the lesson plan.

The case scenario will provide the learners the opportunity to link the theory learned to practice while utilizing critical thinking skills, working collaboratively and engage in problem solving. All of these skills are essential in nursing practice. After the allotted time given for the case scenario, we will reconvene as a large group and discuss the case scenario. This is vital so that I can ensure to add in any omitted components or data during this process that the learners did not identify.

I need to assess the learner’s knowledge on the content delivered in the lesson. I will present each learner with a paper and ask them to briefly summarize the main points of today’s lesson. I will collect their papers for review and provide individual feedback. By examining these will dictate how much of a review I need to do at the start of the next class.

In providing closure to the lesson I can emphasize the main points of the lecture and inform the learner how this lesson will flow into the next lesson. Assigning a journal entry for the learners engages the learner in self-reflection.

Each activity is timed to have the student participating in active learning (Student Engagement Techniques). These activities will engage the student through a variety of learning methods. Each activity or learning method is scheduled for a ten to twenty minute time frame. “The average adult can process an item for ten to twenty minutes before mental fatigue or boredom occurs and attention drifts” (Student Engagement Techniques, pg 102).

8. Describe how the activities of this lesson/workshop will ensure/promote a positive learning environment.

A positive learning environment is created in many ways, not only the physical environment, but also the learning that occurs within the physical environment.As an educator I am aware that each student learns differently and I have a responsibility to facilitate their learning . I must incorporate a variety of learning activities and have the ability to alter the delivery if I sense that the method is impeding the learners learning.

“Emotions impact learning in two distinct ways: the emotional climate in which learning occurs and the degrees to which emotions are associated with the learning content” (Student Engagement Techniques, page 35). Therefore it is essential for the Instructor to create a positive learning environment including incorporating it into
learning activities.

“Learner centered teaching allows the learners to think, solve problems, reflect on what and why they are learning it, motivates the learner, allow them control of their learning, and encourages collaboration” ( Faculty Focus, Five Characteristics of Learner-Center Teaching). All of these are essential components in promoting a positive learning
environment for the adult learner.

The activities of the lesson plan will promote a positive learning environment by ensuring organization of the lesson, accommodating the learners different learning styles, keeping the learners motivated and engaged, fostering peer relationships and and working collaboratively.

Conclusion:

Curriculum development or curriculum revision is a multi step process. The steps include “determine the topic of investigation to assess, formulate the issues, questions and sources of information, describe the desired situation, identify the needed content, gather relevant information needed by decision makers, recommend a method of delivery, document your research, review information collected and verify, report and recommend” (Curriculum Development Course Guide).

It must be determined if the curriculum will be competency based education or outcome base education. Will it include “integrating employability skills into the curriculum” (Curriculum Development Course Guide). When developing curriculum for the adult learner I must take into consideration the characteristics of the adult learner.

Curriculum documents are a structured approved document containing what is to be taught within a designated course or program. These documents have an impact on the learner, instructor and educational facility. They will contain the course overview, learning objectives, learning goals, time frames, required resources, suggested instructional delivery methods and evaluation methods.

“Effective instruction and learning depends upon good curriculum” (Curriculum Development Course Guide).

References:

Anema,, Marion G., McCoy, J., Competency-Based Education Guide to Achieving Outstanding Learner Outcomes – Retrieved from the World Wide Web on February 23, 2013, http://www.springerpub.com/samples/9780826105097_chapter.pdf

Angelo, Thomas, A., Cross, Patricia, Classroom Assessment Techniques, Second Edition

Barkley, Elizabeth, F., Student Engagement Techniques A Handbook for College Faculty, 2010

Blooms Taxonomy – Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 9, 2012, http://www.asph.org/UserFiles/Competency-basedEducation_2012-02-10.pdf

Chernus, Kathleen, Fowler, Donna, Integrating Curriculum: Lessons for Adult Education from Career and Technical Education, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on April 21, 2013,http://lincs.ed.gov/publications/pdf/IntergratingCurriculum2010.pdf

College of Licensed Practical Nurses of British Columbia Website, http://www.clpnbc.org

Fenwick, Tara, J., Incorporating Dynamic Assessment in Evaluation of Adult Learners, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on February 24, 2013, http://www.ualberta.ca/~tfenwick/ext/pubs/barerstein.htm

Gebbie, Kristine, M., Gill, Elizabeth Standish, Competency to Curriculum Toolkit – Retrieved from the World Wide Web on February 25, 2013, http://www.asph.org/userfiles/Competency-to-Curriculum-Toolkit08.pdf

Potter, P. A., & Perry, A. G., Canadian Fundamentals of Nursing, 4th Edition

Quine, Thom, What are Performance Objectives, Retrieved from the World Wide Web, on April 2, 2013,http://www.documen.com/What_are_performance_objectives.pdf

School of Instructor Education, April 2012, PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development Course Guide, Vancouver, BC: Vancouver Community College

Washington University in St. Louis, The Teaching Center, Preparing a Syllabus, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on April 13, 2013, http://teachingcenter.wustl.edu/preparing-syllabus

Weimer, Maryellen, PhD., Effective Teaching Strategies, Retrieved from the World Wide Web, on April 20, 2013, http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/effective-teaching-strategies/five-characteristics-of-learner-centered-teaching/

West Virginia University – Retrieved from the World Wide Web on February 25, 2013,http://www.hsc.wvu.edu/Faculty-Development/Assessment- Materials/Competency-Based-Curriculum

White, Lois, Critical Thinking in Practical/Vocational Nursing

Writing Objectives (Lesson 6) – ITMA, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on February 23, 2013, http://www.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/instrdes/lesson6.htm

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