What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Competency-Based Education (CBE) approach to curriculum development?

Objective:
Define and describe the key terms in the stem. What happened in the 3210 course that drew you to this stem? What elements of the 3210 course are addressed by this stem?

While researching and preparing for the week two activity of the course, I realized that I lacked knowledge on competency based education. I realized that I needed to enhance my knowledge on competency based education. The main reasons for enhancing my knowledge were to learn more about this type of education to ensure I had a solid understanding for my assignments in this module as well to benefit the learners that I am responsible for as an educator.

The advantages of competency based education are; “is aimed at providing the learner with the knowledge, skills and attitudes” (Applications of Competency based Educations: In the Context of Diversity and Change) in a specific job or profession, students are required to have a minimum level of competency in both knowledge and skills components. It promotes ownership to the learner for their learning, utilizes a variety of learning methods, and uses an “objective assessment and a performance assessment”

(The Benefits of Competency-Based Education for Adults). And uses assessments and evaluations methods that are used in the workplace. An example for the practical nursing program is skills testing on medication administration. The student must perform safe medication administration using the ten rights of medication administration to a simulated patient. The Integrated Nursing Practice lab is set-up like a hospital, with a medication cart with all supplies, medication administration record, and the patient has a hospital identification band on. This form of education ensures the employer and that the applicant is job ready with the minimum industry standards for the specific job classification. Regulatory bodies have insurance that the applicant has achieved the minimum required competencies. Competency based education is usually not taught in one single module but is integrated throughout several modules or the entire curriculum this enhances the learner’s knowledge and or skills.

Disadvantages of competency based education are that “the learner often focuses on the assessment instead of completing assignments” (The Benefits of Competency-Based Education for Adults). The reason for this action by the student is that grades are based on assessments not activities or assignments. Often Instructors focus on developing assessments.

The elements of competency based education are addressed throughout the whole module of 3210 Curriculum Development. If you are working with competency based education it is in all aspects of your course materials, the curriculum, Instructor and student syllabus, DACUM charts, learning outcomes, performance outcomes and lesson plans.

Reflective:
Why did you choose this stem? What caught your attention? What thoughts and/or feelings do you associate with this stem? How did the 3210 course help (or not) you learn more about the material associated with this stem? What did you do to help yourself learn more about this material?

I focused on this stem as I needed to research and learn more about competency based education as it relates to the Practical Nursing Program curriculum which I am currently teaching. Competency based education focuses on providing the learner with the knowledge, skills, and attitude to problem solve in a field of study (Application of Competency-based Education: In the Context of Diversity and Change). While preparing the learner to have entry level competencies for a specific job classification.

What caught my attention was that the learners are required to obtain minimum competencies in both knowledge and skills to be deemed successful in the course. This is essential in a nursing program; the learner must have the theory and demonstrate the ability to apply the theory to a skills component to ensure safe competent patient care.

As I reflected on this stem I realized that competency based education is the only form of education for health care programs. As it requires the learner to achieve an expected level of competency in a specific area and develop problem solving skills. These are essential components for health care providers to achieve prior to entering the work force.

Prior to taking this module of the PIDP I lacked knowledge and understanding of competency based education. I was aware that the practical nursing students had to develop minimum competencies in order to be deemed successful, but was not aware how it was outlined in the curriculum. I have never reviewed the curriculum for the course I am instructing until I found it while researching for this module of the Provincial Instructors Diploma Program. It was not for lack of trying on my part, I had made several requests to my employer over the years for a copy of the curriculum. I was always only provided with the Instructor syllabus for the modules I was instructing.

In order to understand more about competency based education I reviewed the 3210 course manual several times, engaged in on-line research, and reviewed other learner’s post and feedback from the Instructor and reviewed textbooks related to adult education.

Interpretive:
What for you was a turning point in your understanding of this material? What key insight(s) have been generated for you as you reflected on this stem? Why are these insight(s) significant and/or relevant?

The turning point for me regarding competency based education was when I was deciding on what focus to use for the development of my curriculum. I knew that I needed to learn more about competency based education as it relates to my practice as an Educator.

The key insights generated as a result of this stem are that competency based education utilizes observable and measurable outcomes to evaluate the learner to determine if they have meet the minimum required competency. The learner must have the ability to integrate knowledge into skills to achieve a pre-determined level of competency. This form of education uses defined learning objectives or performance objectives to measure the student’s level of competency. With competency based education there is five stages of competency. These stages are “novice, advanced beginning, competence, proficiency, and expertise” (PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development Course Guide). As the nurse gains knowledge, experience, and future education they will move through the stages of competency.

These insights are relevant to me as an Educator in a nursing program as the learners must be achieve a level of competence prior to proceeding out to clinical practicum to ensure safe competent care to the public that nurses serve. By using this type of curriculum it ensures that the learners have achieved the required level of competence.

Decisional:
How has this stem and the insights you have gained from this journal reflection influenced your ideas of teaching? How will this educational experience inform your professional practice? What are some related practices or activities you plan to introduce (or continue using) in your teaching?

This stem has influenced my teaching by reinforcing that the learner must ensure that they can integrate the knowledge into skills upon completion of the module. The Provincial Practical Nursing Program is modeled after Jean Watson’s theory of caring and is a spiral model of education. This allows the learner to build upon prior knowledge and experience throughout the program. As the student advances through the program they will be achieving highly levels of previous competencies learned.

This educational experience will influence my professional practice in many ways. I will need to ensure that all assessments and evaluations have measurable performance objectives. It has validated for me that this type of educate accommodates many different learning styles. Therefore I plan to continue to use a variety of learning activities in my class. Examples are lecture, class discussion, group work, case scenarios, and self reflection.

The one practice that I will continue to do is that the learners in the module Integrated Nursing Practice are required to complete a skills testing at the end of the module. The learner is provided with the skills checklist that will be used by the Instructor during this testing. This allows the learner to know exactly what they are expected to achieve in
order to be deemed competent in that area.

References:

Gruppen, Larry D., Mangrulkar, Rajesh S., Kolars, Joseph C., Competency-based education in the health profession: Implications for improving global health, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 15, 2013, http://healthprofessionals21.org/docs/CompBasedEd.pdf

School of Instructor Education, April 2012, PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development Course Guide. Vancouver, BC: Vancouver Community College

Sudsomboon, W., Applications of Competency-based Educations: In Context of Diversity and Change, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 15, 2013, http://www.journal.kmutnb.ac.th/journal/47318255313174.pdf

Robinson, J., The Benefits of Competency-Based Education for Adults, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 15, 2013, http://www.evolllution.com/program_planning/the-benefits-of-competency- based-education-for-adults/

The Competency Group, The Benefits of a Competency-based Approach, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 15, 2013, http://www.thecompetencygroup.com/competency-solutions/discover-the-benefits-of-a-competency-based-approach.aspx

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What are some of your general principles regarding the creation of positive learning environment in each of the lessons or workshops of the courses you teach?

Objective:
Define and describe the key terms in the stem. What happened in the 3210 course that drew you to this stem? What elements of the 3210 course are addressed by this stem?

The key terms in this sentence is that it is essential to create a positive learning environment in each and every class in adult education. Failure to create a positive learning environments can impede the adult learner’s learning. Positive learning environments include the physical environment as well of the activities that occur within the class (Ultimate Adult Learning).

What drew me to this stem was during the lesson plan assignment. As a faculty member I have the autonomy to change or develop new lesson plans for the modules that I teach. Therefore I have the ability to ensure that the learning environment is positive.

Every aspect of curriculum development involves creating a positive learning environment. It starts with curriculum development and flows through to the syllabus and lesson plans.

Reflective:
Why did you choose this stem? What caught your attention? What thoughts and/or feelings do you associate with this stem? How did the 3210 course help (or not) you learn more about the material associated with this stem? What did you do to help yourself learn more about this material?

I chose this stem as the creation of a positive learning environments is essential in adult education. Failure to do so has the potential to compromise the learner’s learning.Examples are; they may not feel comfortable to seek clarification, they become unmotivated, and do not engage in class discussion or activities.

What caught my attention during this module of the PIDP 3210 was that I was not aware that the creation of positive learning environment starts with the development of curriculum.

Upon reflection on this stem and this course it has validated the need for lessons plans that ensures a positive learning environment for the students. These lesson plans will aid as a resource to the instructor in many ways such as equipment required, organization of materials, and implementing a variety of learning methods which are all aspects of a positive learning environment. It is essential in adult education that the characteristics of adult learners are implemented into the lesson plans of a course. This includes self-directed learning activities, activities that build upon prior knowledge and experience, active participation by the learners and keeping the learner stimulated. As a facilitator I need to “manage the process through which adults learn. Making it possible for learning to happen by designing and performing all the activities that the learning process requires” (Ultimate Adult Learning),

To enhance my knowledge on creating positive learning environments in curriculum development I have engaged in on-line research, read the course guide for 3210 and reviewed some previous assignments from the PIDP 3100 module. I plan to continue to enhance my knowledge and skill on creating positive learning environment in my lesson plans to benefit the learners that I will be teaching to. This will be done by informal learning and reflection of my current lesson plans.

Interpretive:
What for you was a turning point in your understanding of this material? What key insight(s) have been generated for you as you reflected on this stem? Why are these insight(s) significant and/or relevant?

The turning point for me in understanding this material was while I was doing the reading and research during for creating a course syllabus for assignment two. While preparing this document the developer must consider creating a positive learning
environment. This will include the instructional delivery methods, assignments and evaluation methods.

The key insights that were generated for me during this course journal were that the positive learning environment starts with the development of the curriculum and is integrated in the course syllabus and the lessons plans. It is essential for the Instructor to have lesson plans for each session.. Each lesson plan should be “organized around specific learning goals” (Working with Adult Learners –page 4).

Planning is essential as an Educator. Being prepared increases your effectiveness in the classroom setting and creates a positive learning environment for the learners. The learners observe that you have shown an interest in their learning.

These insights are relevant to the adult educator as adult learners are self-directed, accept responsibility for their own learning, have varied learning styles, and have a variety of knowledge levels regarding the content being delivered. Therefore I must chose to utilize a variety of learning methods during each lesson.

Decisional:
How has this stem and the insights you have gained from this journal reflection influenced your ideas of teaching? How will this educational experience inform your professional practice? What are some related practices or activities you plan to introduce (or continue using) in your teaching?

Upon reflecting on this stem it has reinforced that it essential in adult education to provide the learner with a positive learning environment to facilitate their learning and be an effective educator.

In relation to my professional practice as an adult educator, I plan to continue to ensure I create positive learning environments. This includes both the physical environment and learning activities. Creation of a positive physical environment includes; that the room is welcoming, by ensuring lightening is satisfactory, the set-up is inviting, adequate space for the number of learners, room is clean including the white board, equipment is functioning and in the room prior to the arrival of the students. I also must be prepared for class with all required materials for the session are in the class prior to the arrival of the students, ensuring mutual respect including learner to learner and instructor to learner, treat the learners as peers, and allowing the learners to be involved in decision making regarding their learning when appropriate.

This module of the PIDP has reinforced that I need to continue using a variety of learning methods and activities in the class to ensure a positive and stimulating learning environment. Examples of activities that I currently use and plan to continue using in the classroom are; class discussions, participatory group work, problem – solving activities, case scenarios, simulations, self-reflection activities and guest speakers. I must recognize the need and have the ability to change the delivery method when required as not all learners learn from the same method.

References:

Characteristics of Adult Learners, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 15, 2013, http://www.assetproject.info/learner_methodologies/before/characteristics.htm

School of Instructor Education, April 2012, PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development Course Guide. Vancouver, BC: Vancouver Community College

NVAA: The Ultimate Educator, Ultimate Adult Learning, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 15, 2013, https://www.ncjrs.gov/ovc_archives/educator/files/chapter3.pdf

Working with Adult Learners, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 15, 2013, http://www.nald.ca/library/learning/demyst/chapter5.htm

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What characteristics of your adult learners most influence ‘how’ you develop and deliver a course?

Objective:
Define and describe the key terms in the stem. What happened in the 3210 course that drew you to this stem? What elements of the 3210 course are addressed by this stem?

In developing or delivering of a course, it is vital to consider the characteristics of adult learners. By failing to acknowledge the characteristics of adult learners, will have negative consequences. Examples of negative consequences are; lack of applicants for the course or having a negative impact on the success of the learner. The negative impact on the learner could be due to lack of motivation, engagement and interest.

The characteristics of adult learners that have the most influence on how I develop or deliver a course are; creation of a positive learning environment, they are self-directed learners, come with prior knowledge and experience, have a need to know why they need to learn it and keeping them active and engaged.

While researching how to develop a course, I realized that you must take into consideration the characteristics of the adult learner. Any materials developed for the adult learner must focus on the characteristics of the adult learner.

This entire module of the Provincial Instructors Diploma acknowledged this stem.The characteristics of adult learners that influence my delivery of a course are, the learners come with prior knowledge and experience, are responsible and accountable for their learning, prefer to be actively involved in the learning process, are problem-solvers, autonomous and self-directed, and need to engage in self-reflection.

Reflective:
Why did you choose this stem? What caught your attention? What thoughts and/or feelings do you associate with this stem? How did the 3210 course help (or not) you learn
more about the material associated with this stem? What did you do to help yourself learn more about this material?

I chose this stem as a journal entry as it is essential as an adult educator to be knowledgeable on the characteristics of adult learners. And consider these characteristics into when developing curriculum, syllabus and lesson plans. This includes utilizing a variety of learning methods and learning activities in developing and in the delivery of course content. This will aid in facilitating the learner’s learning.

This module of the PIDP has not furthered my knowledge on the characteristics of adult learners. But I did learn that these characteristics must be reflected in development of the curriculum not just in the course syllabus or lesson plans.

To learn more about the influence of the characteristics of adult learners I engaged in on-line research, reviewed textbooks related to adult education, and collaborated with my colleagues.

Interpretive:
What for you was a turning point in your understanding of this material? What key insight(s) have been generated for you as you reflected on this stem? Why are these insight(s) significant and/or relevant?

Upon reflecting on this stem the key turning point of understanding this stem was I was preparing to develop the DACUM chart, I had to develop the goals and performance objects. I was reflecting on what instructional delivery methods, assignments and evaluations that would be used for each session.

The key insight for me is that everything in relation to adult learning is based on the characteristics of adult learners. These insights are relevant for me as an adult educator, because if I don’t understand the characteristics of adult learners I will not be an effective facilitator which could have a negative impact on the learners.

This stem is relevant in all aspects of curriculum development for adult education. The characteristics of the adult learner must be considered in the curriculum development, course syllabus and the lesson plan.

Decisional:
How has this stem and the insights you have gained from this journal reflection influenced your ideas of teaching? How will this educational experience inform your professional practice? What are some related practices or activities you plan to introduce (or continue using) in your teaching?

As an adult educator I need to recognize that not all learners learn from the same method. Therefore I need to have the ability to adapt to the learners learning method and change the delivery method if needed. I must consider the previous knowledge and experience that each learner brings to the classroom and utilize their knowledge and experience to enhance the learning environment. I must consider that adult learners are mature and must be treated as equals. They are intrinsically motivated, learn by participating and doing, are goal orientated, and are autonomous and self-directed.

Upon reflecting on this journal stem I will continue to include a variety of learning a method in my classroom to suit the learner’s different learning styles. I plan to review all course related materials and make changes were necessary applying my learned knowledge from this module of the PIDP.

References:

School of Instructor Education. April 2012, PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development Course Guide. Vancouver, BC: Vancouver Community College

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What, for you, is the purpose of curriculum documents? Who reads them? Why?

Objective:
Define and describe the key terms in the stem. What happened in the 3210 course that drew you to this stem? What elements of the 3210 course are addressed by this stem?

Curriculum documents are a framework to achieve desired objectives or outcomes of the course. The documents “will establish the sequence with and between levels and assures a coherent and articulated progression” (Guide to Curriculum Development:
Purposes, Practices, Procedures). Curriculum documents are not stand alone documents; they are supplemented by other documents such as course syllabus and lesson plans to assist the educator in a process to deliver the required content to the learner. Some examples of content that are in curriculum documents are admission requirements, knowledge and or skills that must be acquired, content to be delivered, assessment and evaluation methods, the required minimum grade that must be achieved to be deemed successful in the course, and resources required for the course or program. Walker believes that the fundamental concepts of curriculum include; content, purpose, and organization (Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum).

While researching and reflecting upon the week one activity of providing my definition of curriculum documents, I realized that I had very little knowledge about curriculum documents, the process of curriculum development and the role these documents have in relation to my role as an Educator.

Curriculum documents may be reviewed by government officials, licensing bodies, accreditation institutes, professional bodies, faculty members, stakeholders, industry groups and community groups. Curriculum documents are read for several different reasons. Government, licensing bodies and accreditation institutes will be required to review the document prior to approving the program. Faculty review the document to assist with facilitating the learners’ learning. Academics may review to consider if changes are required.

The entire module of the PIDP 3210 is addressed by his stem. In order to develop a curriculum document the developer or committee must consider the purpose for the program or course, who will taking the program or course, have knowledge on the
development of curriculum, who will be reviewing the document, why they will be reviewing it, and what content must be in the document. Other aspects taught in this module such as course syllabus and lesson plans are all developed after the curriculum document and must all be aligned in a systematic manner.

Reflective:
Why did you choose this stem? What caught your attention? What thoughts and/or feelings do you associate with this stem? How did the 3210 course help (or not) you learn more about the material associated with this stem? What did you do to help yourself learn more about this material?

I chose this stem for my first journal entry as I needed to research and learn more about curriculum documents as I realized I knew very little about the development or purpose of these documents. In fact, I had never seen the curriculum for the B.C. Practical Nursing Program until I started this module of the PIDP. I made several requests to my employer over the past five years to review the curriculum, but was only ever provided with a course syllabus for the module that I was instructing.

Upon researching and reflecting on this stem I believe that every Instructor teaching in a program has the obligation to review the curriculum for that course prior to the start of instructing it. Prior to starting this module of the PIDP I had very little knowledge of how curriculum was developed. I was not aware that there are two different types of education, competency based education and outcome based education. I have learned a lot about the process of curriculum development during this course.

I expanded my knowledge about curriculum documents through reading the 3210 Curriculum Development Guide, research, and reviewing other learner’s posts throughout this course.

Interpretive:
What for you was a turning point in your understanding of this material? What key insight(s) have been generated for you as you reflected on this stem? Why are these insight(s) significant and/or relevant?

My turning point in developing an understanding of curriculum documents was when I was researching for the week 2 activities. It was then that I gained insight how curriculum documents were created, and that there are two different types of curriculum documents.

The key insights that I have gained as a result of this stem, are that curriculum documents focus on the aims and content to be taught, state the competency or outcomes to be achieved, describes the assessment and evaluation process, resources required, and teaching approaches for the course. These are all relevant as my role as an Educator

Decisional:
How has this stem and the insights you have gained from this journal reflection influenced your ideas of teaching? How will this educational experience inform your professional practice? What are some related practices or activities you plan to introduce (or continue using) in your teaching?

Through reflection I have realized the importance of reviewing curriculum documents prior to teaching the program or course. In my opinion the Instructor has a responsibility to ensure that the course syllabus and lesson plans are aligned with the curriculum. As well as the stated assessment and evaluation processes to be used during the course.

This experience has made me realize that I need to review the BC Practical Nursing Program curriculum to ensure that there is a consistent flow with my lesson plans. A priority for my professional practice is to be aware of the expected competencies that my learners are to achieve to be successful in the course, as well as the stated assessment and evaluation process.

References:
Connecticut State Department of Education, Guide to Curriculum Development: Purpose, Practices, Procedures, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 1,2012 http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/cwp/view.asp?a=2618&q=321162

Infed, Curriculum Theory and Practice, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 1, 2013, http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-curric.htm

Marsh, Colin, J., Key Concepts for Understanding Curriculum, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on March 1, 2013, http://qzabansara.com/News/NF23256.pdf

School of Instructor Education, April 2012, PIDP 3210 Curriculum Development Course Guide. Vancouver, BC: Vancouver Community College

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Group Wiki Rationale

Group Wiki Mark & Rationale

Rationale:

Breadth and depth of the topic: did we answer what we set out to?

Our wiki has descriptive information that reflects a clear understanding on motivation, factors affecting motivation, and how to engage the adult learner in motivation in the learning environment. Our home page contains detailed information on motivation and further explains the three components of motivation which allows the reader to understand the three components which are involved within the motivation process. Further explanation is given to understand the two types of motivation both intrinsic and extrinsic. This gives the reader a clear understanding of motivation and how it is related to adult education before viewing other subcategories of the wiki. The most common types of motivational theories are also covered on the site with great detail and links are provided on other theories not listed on the wiki.

The wiki also includes characteristics of adult learners which is imperative because as an adult educator you must be aware of the various types of characteristics in order to instruct and motivate each learner to the best of their capabilities. Without this information, motivating adult learners will be challenging and by far very difficult.

Moving on the wiki also discusses the different aspects of barriers which can arise within the motivation process. The main points discussed in this area are an important aspect to motivating adult learners. Adult educators must recognize the barriers and discover a way to destroy this wall in order to obtain success within the educational environment. This further will motivate learners within the learning process and guide them up the ladder of optimal success.

Lastly, the wiki discusses motivational strategies and the different types of strategies that an educator can utilize to further gain the learners attention and increase the motivation to learn. This is a very factual, comprehensive and informative resource for adult educators. The topics relate to and inform each other: one can read some of the theoretical background and then navigate to the ‘practical’ implementation of those theories for educators.

Media: Images, charts/diagrams, video, etc. Does it add to the written information and contribute to the experience of the viewer?

There are multiple types of graphics within the site which adds creativity and enhances the overall look of the wiki. Visual aids are an excellent way to grasp the reader’s attention and allow for clarity which will further increase the reader’s attention towards the written material. There are visuals to accompany the written content throughout the wiki, which breaks up the text and adds visual interest, and makes it easier to read. Our graphics have a professional look and several of the visual aids were created by the group members, not just trolled off of the internet. There is sufficient amount of graphics to keep the viewer engaged. By embedding too many graphics the reader may lose interest.

The short videos on the site again contribute to further knowledge and increase the readers understanding of the written material. The videos are all good watches-illuminating the content in an inspiring way. All videos on the wiki site are related and orientated to adult education.

The links on the site provide the reader with additional information on the topics of motivation and these again are found on each page. These links are also related to just about every subject, allowing the reader to head off and explore in more detail what interested them initially, and some are to the original source material (not Wikipedia!). The videos are all good watches-illuminating the content in an inspiring way. There is sufficient graphics and videos to keep the viewer engaged. By listing too many may loss the interest of the viewer.

Lay-out, look and feel, navigability

The chosen platform was sites.google.com and this provides a professional look for the wiki and as a group we have managed to ensure that all information is relevant and related adult education. The site has a “search” option at the top of the main page which contributes to easy navigation on the site. We’ve used a text wrap around the other content such as images and videos that make the site read professionally. The font and lay-out is consistent throughout the entire site. There are page names listed on tabs at the top each page which again allow the reader to navigate easily throughout the site. The layout of the wiki is very professional and we have managed to create a look which is similar on each page and there are no inconsistencies, which further gives the wiki a well-organized appearance.

Writing and references

The writing is at a post-secondary level and meets all the criteria for level four in the marking rubric. The writing on the wiki site is free of any grammatical errors and is not too technical making it easily ‘readable.’ The site was proofread and as far as we know there should not be any errors.

We have also ensured that all written material and images used on the site has been given appropriate referencing and citation. As a group we also agreed to have a license through the creative commons site so our knowledge, creativity and material can be shared with the rest of the educational world.

We have significantly referenced material, where images were used, the source is referenced but in some cases we have listed a link so it will link the image back to the copyright holder, i.e. Wikimedia commons. All material is referenced correctly according to APA format. Please note due to the ability of the software we were unable to indent the second line on each reference.

Group communication, teamwork, division of tasks

Group communication and teamwork has worked well throughout the last seven weeks. Our team did encounter some difficulties at the beginning of this assignment with communication as the initially communication was rocky but we were able to work through this situation and move forward respectfully and professionally.

Our group was committed to meet by teleconferences and managed to keep in touch either through emails and ensured that any adjustments made on the site were communicated and rationales given for any changes which were required. The division of tasks was fair for each group member and all group members followed through with their load of tasks. A group member would have liked to use a web conferencing platform to communicate rather than by phone; however this just didn’t work out. In the end the ‘old fashioned’ telephone worked fine.

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Staged Self Directed Learning Model (SSDM)

Objective:
The staged self-directed learning model (SSDM) was developed in 1991 by Gerald Grow. This model has four stages which the student advances through to become self-directed. “Students have varying abilities to respond to teaching that requires them to be self-directed” (Grow). The “teachers purpose is to match the learner’s stage of self-direction and prepare the learner to advance to higher stages” (Grow). Teachers can equip or impede the learner at any stage of the process.

This model “borrows several key concepts from the Situational Leadership Model of Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard” (Grow). Where the learner moves from being a dependent learner to a self-directed learner.

Grows’ model has four stages that the learner progresses through, “stage one,dependent; stage two, interested; stage three, involved; stage four, self-directed” (Grow). The teacher’s role in “stage one is authority/coach, in stage two is to motivator/guide, in stage three a facilitator, and in stage four a consultant/delegate” (Grow).

Reflective:
Self-directed learning is a process that includes planning, doing, and evaluating (Merriam). Within the learning process there are “three types of models; linear, interactive and instructional” (Merriam pg.110).

With the staged self-directed learning model the instructor must be conscious of the stages that the learner is in and adapt their teaching style to each stage “while empowering them to advance to the next level” (Marin). As an instructor you must be cognizant that the learners may be at various stages to becoming self-directed. You must recognize what stage the learners are at as your role will vary between the stages.

Interpretive:
“Good teaching matches the learner’s stage of self-direction and helps the leaner advance toward greater self-direction”. According to Grow the instructor must use specific methods of instruction at each stage. As an instructor you must be aware of the student’s learning styles and the stages of self-directed learning and adapt your teaching methods to the majority of the learners to coach and motivate them towards self-directed learning. “Every stage requires balancing the teacher’s power with the student’s emerging self-direction” (Grow).

Instructional methods for stage one learners are “formal lectures, specific assignments, exercises and intensive individual tutoring” (Grow). At stage two the methods used are “goal setting, teacher led discussions, demonstrations, guided practice” (Grow). For stage three the learners learn by participating in “group projects progressing from structured assignments with criteria checklists, to open-ended, student-developed group projects performed without close supervision” (Grow). At stage four the learners are “independent” (Grow), and the role of the teacher is to “cultivate the student’s ability to learn and monitor progress to ensure success” (Grow).

The role of the instructor in the staged self-directed learning model is to motivate, build confidence, and facilitate the learner in advancing through the stages to become a self-directed learner.

Decisional:
Research has shown that self-directed learning can be learned and taught. In using Grows’ model the instructor must empower the learner to become a self-directed learner. Good teaching, “matches the student’s stage of self-direction, and it empowers the student to progress toward greater self-direction” (Grow).

In researching for this journal entry it has increased my knowledge base on self-directed learning. I have and will continue to use self-directed learning in my classes. I was unaware of the stages the learners go through, the impact of mismatching learners, and the instructional methods that best suit each stage of the model. By completing this journal entry will have a positive impact in the learning environment for both myself and the learners.

As I make a paradigm shift to implement this model of self-directed learning in my courses I will continue to engage in informal learning on this subject to enhance my knowledge base.

References:
Grow, G., O., (1991) Teaching Learners to b Self-Directed, Adult Education Quarterly, 42, 125-149, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 3, 2013, http://alec2.tamu.edu/grad_courses/611/modules/module2/lesson2/grow01.pdf

Marin, Shirley, Maria, Empowering Students to be Self-Directed Learners, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 31, 2013,http://willismasterportfolio.weebly.com/uploads/1/8/9/1/18915891/self-directed_learners.pdf

Merriam, S.B., Caffarella, R. S., & Baumgartner, L.M. (2007), Learning in Adulthood a Comprehensive Guide (3rd Edition)

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Keeping Introverts in Mind in Your Active Learning Classroom

October 28, 2013

By: Nicki Monahan in Teaching and Learning

Introverts. Who are they and how do we ensure they thrive in active learning classrooms? If you have ever come to the midterm point of the semester and graded a stellar paper of a student whose name you don’t recognize and who has never raised her hand in class, you may have just identified an introvert in your classroom.

In every classroom there are a significant proportion of students who would identify themselves as introverts, if they understood what that term meant. Originally conceived by Carl Jung, the concepts of introversion and extroversion have been helpful ways of understanding basic differences in human temperament (Jung, 1970). Often confused with shyness, introversion is an aspect of personality which affects how we engage in social activity and our preferences for learning. Unlike extroverts, who typically are energized by social interaction, introverts can find connecting with large groups of unfamiliar people exhausting. They may have excellent social skills and enjoy meaningful friendships, but are quite happy in their own company.

In an academic environment, introverts may prefer to work completely alone and discover their best ideas in solitude. They are likely to be comfortable in a lecture hall; listening and learning without the demands of engaging with others. But what we know about learning suggests that this passive mode of learning has its limitations, so many of us infuse our classrooms with more active learning strategies.

So how do we respect introverts’ needs amidst all of this active learning? The very first class is an excellent time to establish participation norms and to create a classroom climate that supports introverts in their learning. An activity where students work with a partner is likely to fall within the comfort zone of even the most introverted student, and it still communicates that active participation is both an expectation and a benefit for learning. Whether it is having pairs of students review the syllabus and come up with questions for clarification, or inviting pairs to identify what they most want to learn in the course, working with a partner right from the beginning will create at least one personal contact for the introverted student who, left to his own devices, might sit through an entire semester completely on his own.

When students are expected to apply concepts, analyze material, or solve problems, small group learning activities might be the ideal strategy to implement. In small group discussions, introverts typically prefer to listen first, gather their thoughts before they speak, and may be gifted in synthesizing the ideas communicated by others. In an effort to support introverted students, some faculty members have adopted the practice of assigning roles to group members. However, be wary of always assigning the introvert the role of group recorder; this can inadvertently communicate that their ideas are not a valuable part of the activity.

As Susan Cain suggests in Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World that Can’t Stop Talking, it’s not always the biggest talkers who have the best ideas! (Cain, 2012) When students are encouraged to explore and discover the variable skills of group members, they may come to the realization that the “quieter” member who takes time to process before speaking has unique contributions to the group’s efforts. Well-designed small group learning experiences draw on the skills of all group members rather than creating situations where the most extroverted and gregarious students control the learning.

If your syllabus has a participation policy that rewards students for verbal comments made in large classes, consider the implications. For students who enjoy speaking in front of others and for whom talking out loud is a way of discovering what they are thinking, this can be an opportunity to gain “easy points.” Unfortunately, we’ve all experienced the “overparticipator” who monopolizes the discussion without adding real value. On the other hand, there may be students who will never voluntarily raise their hand in a large lecture hall, yet do have contributions to make to the discussion.

Create learning and assessment strategies that recognize the various ways students can make quality contributions to their own and others’ learning. Even a simple shift of giving students time to think and discuss a concept with a partner before throwing the conversation out to the large group can alter this dynamic. With time to think, and an opportunity to try an idea out with a partner, some students will be more willing to share with the large group. An online discussion environment is another avenue that gives students time to gather their thoughts before expressing them in writing. Given some choice and input, students might choose to have their participation grade based on verbal contributions in class, written responses in an online discussion forum, or a series of journals or reflection papers. Providing a range of opportunities for demonstrating “participation” and creating some flexibility and choice in how participation is assessed is a more equitable approach for all learners.

In many learning situations, introverts may need to stretch beyond their comfort zones, and they should be encouraged to do so, as should extroverts. Our goal is not to turn introverts into extroverts, or vice versa, but to maximize learning for all students and to help them develop the skills often identified by potential employers — teamwork, problem solving, and interpersonal communication. When designing learning activities for your classroom, consider the key elements of balance and choice in order to create a comfortable learning environment which also encourages all students to stretch and take risks.

For more on introverted students, join Nicki Monahan for Helping Introverts Thrive in an Active Learning Classroom. During this live online seminar she will share a developmental approach to active learning that will enable you to create a positive learning experience for introverts and extroverts alike. Learn More »

References:
Susan Cain, Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a Word that Can’t Stop Talking (New York: Crown, 2012), 5

Carl G Jung, Psychological Types (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1971)

Nicki Monahan is a Faculty Facilitator in the Staff & Organizational Development Department at George Brown College, Toronto, Canada.

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Instructional Strategies

Objective:
An instructional or learning strategy is a teaching method that the Instructor uses to create an interactive learning environment that engages the learners in thinking critically,increasingmotivation, and enhancing the learning process towards achieving their academic goals.

Instructional strategies “can be classed as direct, indirect, interactive, experiential, or independent” (Instructional Approaches). There is not one best instructional strategy, “the key is to use the right strategy at the right time” (Instructional Strategies for Student Success).

“Effective teaching is not a set of generic practices, but instead is a set of context-driven decisions about teaching. Effective teachers do not use the same set of practices for every lesson” (Instructional Approaches). It is vital that the instructor utilizes a assortment of instructional strategies in the learning environment to accommodate alllearning styles while challenging the learner in achieving the learning objectives of the session.

“Successful teaching is measured by learning gains. A lesson is only as effective as it’s reflection in student achievement” (Instructional Strategies How to Teach for Rigor).

Reflective:
The instructional strategies that you chose as an Instructor to implement in your learning environment must “be congruent with the learning outcome first and foremost” (Teaching and Learning Centre). When selecting strategies to use you must consider the program goals, characteristics of adult learners, prior experience of learners, and the variety of learning styles of the learners. By using a variety of instructional strategies will improve your effectiveness in the classroom setting.

Upon researching and reflecting for this journal article I realized that I do a lot of instructional activities in my sessions. I refer to them as break out group activities or activities, but in fact they are instructional strategies to motivate and engage the learner to a higher level of thinking. The response from the learners is positive especially if it involves a case scenario strategy.

The instructor’s role in using an instructional strategy in the classroom is to choose the right strategy at the right time, provide a positive learning climate, and provide clear directions for using the strategy, and being prepared to use the strategy. And engaging in critical self-reflection and evaluation after each session to determine the effetiveness of the strategies used.

Interpretive:
As an adult educator I must utilize a variety of instructional strategies in the classroom setting to enhance the learner’s learning. By utilizing a variety of strategies will ensure that all learning styles have an opportunity to learn. These activities must be aligned to meet the course objectives while engaging and motivating the learner. Prior to implementing an instructional strategy the instructor has a responsibility to inform the learners of the objective of the strategy, guidelines for using the strategy, and how they will work through the strategy. By utilizing a variety of instructional strategies will move the learner towards independence and self-directed learning.

Decisional:
In November I will be instructing a semester one and four professional practice module in the Practical Nursing Program and am excited about increasing the amount of instructional strategies that I use in the classroom.

While researching I found that the following instructional strategies are effective in health care education; cooperative learning, group discussions, independent study, portfolio development, journals and learning logs, simulations and role-playing.I currently use cooperative learning, group discussions, portfolio development, and learning plans in all my classes.

I am going to engage in informal learning to identify what are the best instructional strategies to use in professional practice courses for nurses.

“As educators, we should strive to design and develop instruction that is effective, consistent, and meaningful”(Principles of Effective Instruction).

References:
Barkley, Elizabeth F., (2010) Student Engagement Techniques A Handbook for College
Faculty

Brunette, Jane, Instructional Strategies, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October
9, 2013, http://www.gwu.edu/~cooptchr/Instruction/instructionalstrats.htm

Gale Encyclopedia of Education, Re Retrieved from the World Wide Web on
October 8, 2013, http://www.answers.com/topic/instructional-strategies

Instructional Strategies for Student Success, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on
October 8, 2013, http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/53691_Gregory_Ch_6.pdf

Instructional Strategies How to Teach for Rigor, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 8, 2013,
http://www.docjax.com/document/view.shtml?id=1443562&title=Instructional%20Strategies%20-%20International%20Center%20for%20Leadership%20in%20

McTighe, Jay, Wiggins, Grant, (2013) Essential Question Opening Doors to Student
Understanding

Northern Illinois Univeristy, Retreived from the World Wide Web on October 10, 2013, http://www.niu.edu/facdev/resources/guide/principles/principles_of_effective_instruction.pdf

Teaching Resources for Florida ESE, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 9,
2013, http://www.cpt.fsu.edu/eseold/in/strmain.html

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Motivation

Objective:
Motivation is “the act or process of giving someone a reason for doing something” (Merriam Webster Online). There are two different motivational patterns, intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation comes from desire within the learner where there are no external factors. Extrinsic motivation is the individual is being influenced by an outside factor.

There are three components of motivation; activation, persistence, and intensity. Activation is when the individual takes the first step towards achieving their goal. Persistance is a committed effort the individual exerts in working towards their goal. Intensity is the energy and process the individual applies to achieve their desired goal.

According to Wlodkowski there are four factors that affect an adult learner’s motivation to learn. They are; establishing inclusion, developing a positive attitude, enhancing meaning, and engendering competence. Establishing inclusion, is awareness that the learner and the instructor are a part of the learning environment and that they must stay connected in this environment. Developing a positive attitude, is creating a positive attitude towards the learning experience. Enhancing meaning, is engaging the learner in challenging learning activities so that learning is related to learning goals or outcomes. Engendering competence, is developing an understanding in which learners are motivated to learn if they assign value to it

Research has shown that the learner’s motivation is significantly impacted by the instructor’s instructional methods. And the instructor can stimulate motivation by engaging and challenging the learner by using effective instructional strategies.

There are many theories that examine motivation in the adult learner. Examples are the needs theory, cognitive theory, goal theory, humanistic theory, reactance theory, equity theory, behavioral theory, social learning theory, and the attribution theory.

Knowles introduced a learning theory that has six assumptions related to motivating the adult learner. These are, “the need to know, foundation, self-concept, readiness, orientation, and motivation” (Wikipedia).

Reflective:
This topic is vast and has many components related to it in relation to adult education.As an adult educator I need to “cultivate thinking skills, stimulate interest in the subject, and motivate students to learn” (Weimer). This can be accomplished by utilizing effective instructional strategies to keep the learner engaged while challenging them to a higher level of thinking.

Interpretive:
There are multiple barriers to adult motivation in the learning environment. The adult learner has many responsibilities to balance. Barriers to motivation includes lack of time, money, and confidence. They have scheduling conflicts such as child care and transportation issues.

The instructor has a role in facilitating the motivation of the adult learner. The instructor must create a positive learning environment and a sense of belonging for the learners. For the intrinsic motivation the instructor must explain relevance of the content, while allowing learner input into learning activities and by “creating and maintaining curiosity” (Motivation to Learn: An Overview). For the extrinsic motivation the instructor must “provide clear expectations” (Motivation to Learn: An Overview), while providing constructive feedback, offering rewards and provide examples.

Decisional:
This has been a very rewarding and insightful assignment for me to complete. I have had experience in the past with unmotivated learners and at times struggled withattempting to engage and motivate them. Due to the knowledge that I have gained from this journal entry I will be much better at facilitating and motivating the learners in my class.

I am going to be teaching two semesters in November and am looking forward to increasing the instructional strategies that I use in the sessions. I have always used activities in my session but feel that I have increased my knowledge base to keep the learners more engaged, motivated and to a higher level of thinking.

References:
Barkley, Elizabeth F., (2010) Student Engagement Techniques A Handbook for College
Faculty

Huitt, W., (2011). Motivation to learn: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 7, 2013, http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/motivation/motivate.html

Merriam-Webster Online, Retrieved from the World Wide Web, on October 7, 2013, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/motivation

McTighe, Jay, Wiggins, Grant, (2013) Essential Question Opening Doors to Student
Understanding

Recklies, Dagmar, Motivation-Basic Concepts and Theories, Retrieved from the World
Wide Web on October 7, 2013, http://www.themanager.org/resources/Motivation.htm

Weimer, Maryellen, Defining Teaching Effectiveness (2013), Retrieved from the World
Wide Web on October 7, 2013, http://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-professor-blog/defining-teaching-effectiveness/

Wikipedia, Andragogy, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 7, 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andragogy

Wikipedia, Genpsych-sjrstate, Components of Motivation, Retrieved from the World
Wide Web on October 7, 2013, https://genpsych-sjrstate.wikispaces.com/

Wlodkowski, Raymond, Website, Retrieved from the World Wide Web on October 7,
2013, http://raymondwlodkowski.com/

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Think Pair Share Instructional Strategy

http://my.brainshark.com/Think-Pair-Share-732497496

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